Electrical Knowledge

What is oil immersed distribution transformer?

Publish Time: 2023-11-15 16:44:00     Author: DELIXI

In the intricate web of electricity distribution systems, oil immersed distribution transformers stand as essential components, facilitating the efficient transfer of electrical power from generation sources to end-users. Now Delixi will explores the fundamental principles, components, and functions of oil filled distribution transformerss that play a pivotal role in ensuring a reliable and safe power supply.

How does oil immersed distribution transformers work?

In the intricate world of electricity distribution, oil immersed transformers play a silent yet crucial role in ensuring the seamless transfer of power from generation sources to end-users. oil immersed distribution transformers operate based on the principles of electromagnetic induction, where changes in magnetic flux induce a voltage in a coil. How these transformers work:

Electromagnetic Induction: The core component of an oil filled distribution transformers is the laminated steel core. When alternating current (AC) flows through the primary winding (located around one section of the core), it generates a magnetic field in the core. This magnetic field alternately expands and collapses as the AC voltage cycles, inducing a changing magnetic flux in the core.

Voltage Induction: The secondary winding (located around another section of the core) is wound in such a way that it experiences this changing magnetic flux. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, the changing magnetic field induces a voltage in the secondary winding. The turns ratio between the primary and secondary windings determines the transformation ratio, allowing for the effective step-down of high voltages in power distribution systems.

Insulating Oil and Cooling: The entire transformer assembly is immersed in insulating oil, often mineral oil. This oil serves multiple purposes. Firstly, it provides insulation between the windings and the core, reducing the risk of electrical breakdown. Secondly, it acts as a coolant, dissipating the heat generated during the transformer's operation. Efficient cooling is crucial for maintaining the transformer's temperature within safe limits and ensuring optimal performance.

Tank and Structural Support: The transformer components, including the core and windings, are housed in a sealed tank made of steel. This tank not only protects the transformer from external environmental factors but also provides structural support. The sealed environment prevents the entry of moisture and contaminants, maintaining the integrity of the insulating oil.

Conservator and Buchholz Relay: The conservator is a separate chamber connected to the transformer tank. It accommodates changes in the oil volume due to temperature variations, helping to maintain a consistent oil level. The Buchholz relay, connected to the oil pipe, acts as a protective device. It detects the presence of gas or significant oil flow within the transformer, signaling potential issues such as internal faults.

Regulation with Tap Changer: For added adaptability, some transformers are equipped with a tap changer. This device allows adjustments to the turns ratio and, consequently, the output voltage. This feature proves invaluable in managing voltage levels to meet the dynamic demands of a fluctuating power distribution network.

oil immersed transformers are marvels of engineering, seamlessly blending principles of electromagnetic induction with innovative design features. As silent guardians of electricity distribution, these transformers ensure that power flows reliably and safely from the generating stations to our homes and industries.

What is the key components of oil immersed distribution transformers?

oil filled distribution transformers are intricate devices composed of several key components that work in harmony to facilitate the efficient transfer of electrical power. Understanding these components is crucial to appreciating the transformer's role in the broader context of power distribution systems. Let's delve into the fundamental components:

Core: At the heart of the transformer lies the core, typically constructed from laminated steel sheets. The core serves a vital role in creating a magnetic circuit that enables the induction of voltage between the primary and secondary windings.

Windings: The transformer comprises two sets of coils known as windings—the primary winding and the secondary winding. The primary winding receives the incoming high voltage, generating a magnetic field in the core. The secondary winding, placed in proximity to the primary winding, is where the induced voltage is collected.

Insulating Oil: The transformer is immersed in a tank filled with insulating oil, commonly mineral oil. This oil serves a multi-faceted purpose:

Cooling: Insulating oil dissipates the heat generated during the transformer's operation, preventing overheating and ensuring optimal performance.

Insulation: By providing insulation between the windings and the core, the oil reduces the risk of electrical breakdown and enhances overall safety.

Arc Quenching: In the event of a fault, the oil helps quench any resulting arcs, contributing to the safety and reliability of the transformer.

Tank: The tank containing the insulating oil is typically made of steel and is sealed to prevent the entry of moisture and contaminants. The tank also provides structural support to the transformer components.

Buchholz Relay: A Buchholz relay is a protective device installed in the oil pipe connecting the transformer tank and the conservator. It detects and signals the presence of gas or significant oil flow within the transformer, indicating potential issues such as internal faults.

Conservator: The conservator is a separate chamber attached to the transformer tank, designed to accommodate variations in the oil volume due to temperature changes. It helps maintain a consistent oil level within the transformer.

Tap Changer: In some transformers, a tap changer is included to adjust the turns ratio of the transformer and thereby regulate the output voltage. This feature is particularly useful in managing voltage variations in the power distribution network.

These transformers play a critical role in electricity distribution, stepping down voltages and ensuring a reliable and safe power supply to end-users.

What are the key maintenance practices for oil immersed distribution transformers, and how do these practices contribute to prolonging the transformer's operational life?

Maintenance practices for oil immersed distribution transformers are crucial for ensuring their reliable performance and extending their operational life. Here are key maintenance practices and their contributions to the longevity of transformers:

Regular Inspections: Regular visual inspections help identify early signs of issues such as oil leaks, corrosion, or physical damage. Early detection allows for timely intervention, preventing minor issues from developing into major problems that could compromise the transformer's integrity.

Oil Quality Analysis: Regular testing of the insulating oil helps assess its dielectric strength, moisture content, and chemical composition. Monitoring oil quality ensures the transformer's insulation capabilities are maintained, preventing internal faults and degradation of the transformer's performance over time.

Temperature Monitoring: Continuous monitoring of the transformer's temperature helps identify abnormal heating, which can be indicative of internal issues or overloading. Timely identification and resolution of overheating issues prevent insulation breakdown and contribute to the safe and efficient operation of the transformer.

Bushings and Insulation Checks: Regular checks on bushings and insulation components help ensure their integrity and effectiveness. Maintaining proper insulation prevents electrical breakdown and enhances the overall reliability of the transformer.

Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA): Periodic DGA helps detect the presence of abnormal gases in the oil, which may indicate internal faults. Early detection of internal faults allows for planned maintenance, reducing the risk of catastrophic failures and extending the transformer's life.

Conservator and Breather Maintenance: Regular maintenance of the conservator and breather systems helps control moisture levels and prevents contaminants from entering the transformer. Controlling moisture and maintaining a clean environment inside the transformer contributes to the preservation of insulation properties and overall reliability.

Tap Changer Inspection: Regular inspection and maintenance of tap changers ensure their proper functioning and prevent mechanical failures. A well-maintained tap changer contributes to stable voltage regulation and prevents operational issues that could affect the transformer's performance.

Buchholz Relay Testing: Periodic testing of the Buchholz relay ensures its responsiveness to gas and oil flow anomalies. A reliable Buchholz relay provides early warning of developing faults, allowing for corrective action before serious damage occurs.

Cleaning and Painting: Keeping the transformer exterior clean and applying protective coatings prevents corrosion and deterioration. Preventing external damage contributes to the overall aesthetics, longevity, and structural integrity of the transformer.

Documentation and Record-Keeping: Maintaining detailed records of maintenance activities and transformer performance. Comprehensive documentation helps in tracking the transformer's history, planning future maintenance, and making informed decisions to optimize its operational life.

By implementing these maintenance practices, utilities and operators can ensure the reliable and safe operation of oil immersed transformers, contributing significantly to their prolonged operational life. Regular and proactive maintenance not only prevents costly failures but also enhances the resilience and efficiency of the entire power distribution system.

Why Choose Delixi oil immersed distribution transformers?

The oil distribution transformer conforms to the technical parameters and requirements of China National Standard GB1094 and GB/T6451, and a series of significant innovation is applies in aspects of material, design and structure. The oil immersed distribution transformer has the features of high efficiency and low loss. It can save a lot of operation cost, and the social benefits are very significant. In conclusion, it is a nationally promoted new product and it is deeply favored by customers.

Work condition

Installation type: indoor/outdoor/type
Ambient temperature: -25°C ~+40°C
Altitude: ≤1000m
Installation site: in places without corrosive gases and obvious dusts.

Reference standards

1 .Power transformer: GB1094.1 -2-1996,GB1094.3-2003,GB1094.5-2008

Three-phase oil-immersed transformers: GB/T6451-2008

Performance characteristics

1.The features of this oil immersed power transformer are high efficiency and low loss. It can save a lot of operation cost, and the social benefits are very significant.

2.The iron cores are made of the imported high-conduction magnetism, cold-roll, and grain-oriented silicon-steel sheets. The iron cores and windings adopt the vacuum drying and vacuum oil-filling processes, which make the internal moisture down to the very low level.

3.The conservator is hermetically sealed, which make the internal running oil to insolate with oxygen and moisture efficiently.

4. The above features guarantee the transformer does not need to replace the oil during the operation, greatly decrease the maintenance cost, and prolong the service life.


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